To uniformly compare and classify language skills throughout Europe, the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages was developed. Based on this framework, foreign language skills are divided into the following language levels:
Basic Language Use
A1 Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at satisfying specific needs. Can introduce him/herself and others, and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows or things he/she has. Can interact in a simple way provided the other person speaks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.
A2 Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal information and information regarding family, shopping, employment, local geography). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background and education, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.
Independent Language Use
B1 Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure time etc. Can deal most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. Can describe experiences or events, dreams, hopes, ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.
B2 Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation. Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. Can produce clear. detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
Proficient Lnguage Use
C1 Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts and recognise implicit meaning. Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.
C2 Can understand virtually everything heard or read with ease. Can summarise information from different written and spoken sources, reconstructing arguments and explanations in a coherent presentation. Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in complex situations.